A look at the books which have inspired literary classics

Knopf/Signet Classics via AP - This combination photo shows covers of classic books, “War And Peace,” by Leo Tolstoy, left, and George Orwell’s “1984.”

NEW YORK — Behind every great book are the books which influenced it.

The “micro-learning” app and platform blinkist.com has been compiling literary sources for such classics as “A Clockwork Orange,” ”Oliver Twist” and “1984.” Mary Shelley’s “Frankenstein” was inspired by each of her parents — William Godwin’s “An Enquiry Concerning Political Justice” and Mary Wollstonecraft’s “A Vindication of the Rights of Women.”

One of the defining novels of the Civil War era, Harriet Beecher Stowe’s “Uncle Tom’s Cabin,” drew in part upon one of the defining memoirs, “The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave.” Douglass’ book, which remains standard reading in many schools, also was cited by Toni Morrison for her Pulitzer Prize winning historical novel “Beloved.”

“We were noticing the attention around the 200th anniversary of ‘Frankenstein’ and got to thinking about the nonfiction works which help author of fiction,” says Blinkist writer-editor Tom Anderson. “We think of those books as the unsung heroes.”

Charles Dickens’ portrait of extreme wealth and poverty in London in “Oliver Twist” was in part modeled on Edward Gibbon’s “The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.” Anthony Burgess drew upon fiction and nonfiction for his terrifying “A Clockwork Orange,” his sources including Aldous Huxley’s futuristic classic “Brave New World” and B.F. Skinner’s landmark of psychology “Science and Human Behavior.”

Tolstoy’s “War and Peace” reflected the author’s reading of the philosophy of Arthur Schopenhauer, along with works about Napoleon and French history. According to Tolstoy scholar Ani Kokobobo, the author was “captivated” by Schopenhauer and his belief that “death is the only reality,” a viewpoint expressed by the cerebral Prince Andrei Nikolayevich Bolkonsky in “War and Peace.” Kokobobo also noted that “War and Peace” was a response in part to such French scholarship as Adolphe Thiers’ “History of the Consulate and the Empire of France Under Napoleon,” which Tolstoy believed exaggerated Napoleon’s stature and military ideas.

“Tolstoy did not believe in this ‘great man’ theory, also propagated by Thomas Carlyle, and thought that victory and defeat were not determined by a sole heroic leader, but rather by the collective alignment of the will of thousands,” said Kokobobo, editor of the Tolstoy Studies Journal.